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Technology Market
Technology market is defined as a venue for exchanging technologies, organizing a stable process of selling and buying in a particular field or a variety of fields, using a well-defined business mechanism.

Business mechanism of technology markets:

Business mechanism of technology markets is a combination of processes facilitating the trade of technologies. These processes include:

  • The supply of technology by the seller
  • The selection of technology by the buyer
  • The pricing of technology
  • The official/financial process involved in technology trades
  • The transport of technology to the buyer’s address and its subsequent adoption by the buyer
  • The indigenization and upgrade of technology


The goals behind the establishment of the Persian Gulf Technology Market:

  • Creating an opportunity for the introduction and supply of technologies and technological potentials in a variety of specialized fields, particularly High-Tech
  • Creating an opportunity for the commercialization of research achievements
  • The development of science-based economy through creating new opportunities for investment and encouragement of the private sector in High-Tech

The realization of innovation process depends on certain factors, one of which is the supply of financial resources. Exploiting investment resources is a crucial factor for the creation and adoption of High-Tech by entrepreneurs and researchers. Since most entrepreneurs do not gain access to rich financial resources for investment, and since most attempts to establish new businesses are  based on research studies, the entrepreneurs’ attempts are more often than not bound to fail. Thus, the commercialization of research achievements is an essential activity in the Persian Gulf Science and Technology Parks.

The goals of the commercialization office:

  • The introduction and documentation of the processes involved in technology transfer and commercialization in universities and research centers
  • Encouraging industry owners and investors to participate in commercialization plans of universities and research centers
  • Organizing and purpose-building of projects toward commercialization
  • Building communication networks among experts to facilitate the commercialization of research achievements
  • Protecting and introducing ideas; registering the inventions of researchers in universities and research centers

Technology Transfer
Technology Transfer, also called Transfer of Technology (TOT) and Technology Commercialisation, is the process of transferring skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among governmentsor universitiesand other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials or services. It is closely related to (and may arguably be considered a subset of) knowledge transfer.

Some also consider technology transfer as a process of moving promising research topics into a level of maturity ready for bulk manufacturing or production.

Intellectual Property
Intellectual property (IP) is a legalconcept which refers to creations of the mind for which exclusive rightsare recognized.Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property rights include copyright, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, trade dress, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.

Although many of the legal principles governing intellectual property rights have evolved over centuries, it was not until the 19th century that the term intellectual property began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world.The British Statute of Anne(1710) and the Statute of Monopolies(1623) are now seen as the origins of copyrightand patent lawrespectively.

A patent is a set of exclusive rightsgranted by a sovereign stateto an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time, in exchange for the public disclosure of the invention. An invention is a solution to a specific technological problem, and may be a product or a process.Patents are a form of intellectual property.

The procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claimsthat define the invention. These claims must meet relevant patentabilityrequirements, such as noveltyand non-obviousness. The exclusive right granted to a patentee in most countries is the right to prevent others from making, using, selling, or distributing the patented invention without permission.

Under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, patents should be available in WTO member states for any invention, in all fields of technology,and the term of protectionavailable should be a minimum of twenty years.Nevertheless, there are variations on what is patentable subject matterfrom country to country.

Business networking is a socioeconomic activity by which groups of like-minded businesspeoplerecognize, create, or act upon business opportunities. A business network is a type of social network whose reason for existing is business activity. There are several prominent business networking organizations that create models of networking activity that, when followed, allow the business person to build new business relationships and generate business opportunities at the same time. A professional network serviceis an implementation of information technologyin support of business networking. Many businesspeople contend business networking is a more cost-effectivemethod of generating new business than advertisingor public relationsefforts. This is because business networking is a low-cost activity that involves more personal commitment than company money.

As an example, a business network may agree to meet weekly or monthly with the purpose of exchanging business leads and referralswith fellow members. To complement this activity, members often meet outside this circle, on their own time, and build their own one-to-one relationship with the fellow member.

Business networking can be conducted in a local business community, or on a larger scale via the Internet. Business networking websites have grown over recent years due to the Internet's ability to connect people from all over the world. Internet companies often set up business leads for sale to bigger corporations and companies looking for data sources.

Business networking can have a meaning also in the ICTdomain, i.e. the provision of operating support to companies and organizations, and related value chainsand value networks.

It refers to an activity coordination with a wider scope and a simpler implementation than pre-organized workflows or web-based impromptu searches for transaction counterparts (workflow is useful to coordinate activities, but it is complicated by the use of s.c. patterns to deviate the flow of work from a pure sequence, in order to compensate its intrinsic linearity; impromptu searches for transaction counterparts on the web are useful as well, but only for non-strategic supplies; both are complicated by a plethora of interfaces needed among different organizations and even between different IT applications within the same organization).

Teamwork is "work done by several associates with each doing a part but all subordinating personal prominence to the efficiency of the whole" .

In a business setting accountingtechniques may be used to provide financial measuresof the benefits of teamwork which are useful for justifying the concept.Teamwork is increasingly advocated by health care policy makers as a means of assuring quality and safety in the delivery of services; a committee of the Institute of Medicinerecommended in 2000 that patient safetyprograms "establish interdisciplinary team training programs for providers that incorporate proven methods of team training, such as simulation."

In health care, a systematic concept analysis in 2008 concluded teamwork to be "a dynamic process involving two or more healthcare professionals with complementary backgrounds and skills, sharing common health goals and exercising concerted physical and mental effort in assessing, planning, or evaluating patient care."Elsewhere teamwork is defined as "those behaviours that facilitate effective team member interaction," with "team" defined as "a group of two or more individuals who perform some work related task, interact with one another dynamically, have a shared past, have a foreseeable shared future, and share a common fate."Another definition for teamwork proposed in 2008 is "the interdependent components of performance required to effectively coordinate the performance of multiple individuals"; as such, teamwork is "nested within" the broader concept of team performance which also includes individual-level taskwork.A 2012 review of the academic literature found that the word "teamwork" has been used "as a catchall to refer to a number of behavioral processes and emergent states."

Teamwork processes:

Researchers have identified 10 teamwork processes that fall into three categories:

  • Transition processes (between periods of action)
    • Mission analysis
    • Goal specification
    • Strategy formulation
  • Action processes (when the team attempts to accomplish its goals and objectives)
    • Monitoring progress toward goals
    • Systems monitoring
    • Team monitoring and backup behavior
    • Coordination
  • Interpersonal processes (present in both action periods and transition periods)
    • Conflict management
    • Motivation and confidence building
    • Affect management

Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce, is a type of industry where buying and selling of product or service is conducted over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange(EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collectionsystems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Webat least at one point in the transaction's life-cycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail, mobile devicessocial media, and telephones as well.

Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of business transactions. This is an effective and efficient way of communicating within an organization and one of the most effective and useful ways of conducting business.

E-commerce can be divided into:

  • E-tailing or "virtual storefronts" on websites with online catalogs, sometimes gathered into a "virtual mall"
  • The gathering and use of demographic data through Web contacts and social media
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), the business-to-business exchange of data
  • E-mail and fax and their use as media for reaching prospective and established customers (for example, with newsletters)
  • Business-to-businessbuying and selling
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